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 **Cushings Disease

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*Janet*
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PostSubject: **Cushings Disease   Fri Mar 02, 2018 10:17 am

Should your older dog be drinking and urinating more than usual, it could be caused by a variety of reasons. One cause your veterinarian may test for is Cushing’s disease (CD), also known as hyperadrenocorticism. This condition, usually caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, is far more common than we realize, but because of the complex diagnostic testing required, it’s underdiagnosed. Treatment is expensive and ongoing, and it requires consistent monitoring.

The pituitary gland, a tiny gland found at the base of the brain, releases adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which in turn tells the adrenal glands to release cortisol, also called glucocorticoids. In a pet with CD, a tumor in the pituitary gland or, less commonly, in one of the adrenal glands, causes the cortex to release an excess amount of cortisol.

SYMPTOMS OF CUSHINGS DISEASE

Often owners report that their first clue that something might have been wrong was their dog wanting to go out at night to urinate.

The disease causes extreme thirst, so a dog with CD tends to drink tremendous amounts of water and urinate frequently.

As the disease progresses, dogs lose muscle and become weak.

Owners might notice a thinning of the skin, lesions on the skin, and hair loss on the flanks, neck, and perineum.

Obesity and lack of energy are also symptoms.

Since it takes time — at least one year — for these symptoms to develop, and because the symptoms are often mistaken for common signs of aging, many dogs have the advanced form of CD before the owner even recognizes a problem exists.

CAUSES OF CHUSHINGS DISEASE

Although it is naturally occurring, it can also be caused by administering excessive amounts of prednisone or dexamethasone for prolonged periods. Chronic application of steroid-containing ear drops can also cause the condition because the medication is absorbed through the skin. Affected dogs develop symptoms that are identical to those of the tumor-based disease. This form resolves once the steroids are stopped.

Certain breeds are at a higher risk of developing CD. The Poodle, Dachshund, Boston Terrier, Boxer, and Beagle are some breeds to watch. Almost all patients are older than eight years when CD develops.

Diagnosing CD is not easy and can be quite expensive. When a veterinarian suspects this disease, blood and urine tests are needed to make the diagnosis. Dilute urine and an elevation of the liver enzyme alkaline phosphatase in the blood indicate that testing for CD may be necessary.

Cushing’s disease can be verified with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. For this test, a blood sample is drawn from the patient, then he is given an injection of ACTH, and a second blood test is taken a few hours later. If the dog’s cortisol level goes up a little, his adrenal response is normal. If it starts high and climbs even higher, a diagnosis of CD is confirmed.

The veterinarian may also use a second method, the dexamethasone suppression test, in which the dog receives an injection of the steroid dexamethasone. In a healthy dog, the cortisol level goes down over the following few hours because the steroid suppresses adrenal production. If the cortisol level fails to drop, it suggests there is a tumor not responding to the medication.

Ultrasound examinations also allow the veterinarian to determine whether or not a tumor is present, and if it’s located in the pituitary gland or the adrenal glands.

TREATMENT

We treat most dogs with pituitary-based CD with medication. Mitotane (Lysodren) and trilostane (Vetoryl) are oral medications that selectively destroy part of the adrenal cortex so that although the pituitary gland tumor continues to release ACTH, cortisol levels remain normal. Careful monitoring is required to ensure that the drugs don’t destroy all of the cortex and that the cortisol stays at a defined level.

The average survival time for a dog with CD is about two years, with only 10 percent of patients living beyond the four-year mark. This statistic, however, does not mean that this disease causes death. Because CD is most often diagnosed in geriatric dogs, most die of unrelated causes brought on by aging.
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Karen Brittan

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PostSubject: Re: **Cushings Disease   Mon Apr 02, 2018 12:20 pm

I once asked a veterinarian/friend of mine what was the most common problem that she had seen in miniature schnauzers during her practice..... and without hesitation she responded, "Diabetes and Cushing's Disease.... and every single one of those dogs was overweight!"

Because of her comment, I try to keep my dogs *slightly* on the thin side. I want to feel those ribs easily by just laying my hands on the dog's side, but I do not want to feel the hipbones.
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*Janet*
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PostSubject: Re: **Cushings Disease   Mon Apr 02, 2018 5:39 pm

Max has his hour glass figure, and I can slightly feel his ribs.....
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